photography by swartz



8. Deportations


There were three forms of deportation: from towns or cities to smaller ghettos; from smaller ghettos to larger ones; and from 1942 on, to one of the six main killing centers Auschwitz/Birkenau, Majdanek, Chełmno, Treblinka, Bełżec, and Sobibr.

The German railroad, the Reichsbahn, was one of the largest organizations of the Third Reich. It employed 1,400,000 workers. The Jews were transported as cattle in freight cars, each holding 80-100 people. Each train carried 1,000-2,000 people. On July 22, 1942, the first Treblinka-bound train left the Umschlagplatz in Warsaw carrying 6,000 Jews gathered from refugee centers and prisons in Warsaw. The "resettlement" of the Jews "to the East" had begun. As an enticement for "resettlement," all Jews who volunteered to go "to the East" would be given three kilograms of bread and one kilogram of marmalade.

Treblinka was not a "resettlement" camp but a death camp. "Resettlement" was the Nazi euphemism for annihilation.

Shown here is a street scene of Jews being deported from the Warsaw ghetto, circa 1941.

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Last modified: 07/15/03