photography by swartz



5. The Blue Star of David


On September 29, 1939, Warsaw's 375,000 Jews were required to wear a clearly visible mark a blue Star of David on a white arm band.

On November 11, 1939, an order was given by the District Chief of Krakow (Governor Wchter) that as of December 1, 1939, all Jews over the age of 12 years must also be identified by the Blue Star of David.

The Jewish Councils of Elders (Judenrat), established on September 21, 1939, were set up in every Jewish community. The Judenrat were Nazi-appointed Jews charged with controlling community life and carrying out all orders. In case of sabotage, the "severest measures" were to be taken.

A decree of September 1, 1941, required all Jews in Germany to wear a yellow Star of David bearing the word Jude Jew beginning on September 15, 1941.

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Last modified: 07/15/03